Share and Explore the Tech Inside You!!!

Blog posts

Techniques/technologies to mitigate compensation in long haul submarine optical networks

Map of transmission impairments in long-haul submarine systems and some techniques/technologies for their mitigation or compensation.





Read more

Spectral Hole Burning (SHB) phenomenon in Optical Networks

Spectral Hole Burning (SHB)

Spectral hole burning (SHB) is a major limitation of amplified WDM systems with high channel count. The main reason lies in the fact that there is no possibility of compensating for this effect.

  • Due to the inhomogeneous portion of the linewidth broadening of the …

Read more

Difference between EDFAs requirements for Terrestrial(Land) Systems and Submarine Systems.

Compared with requirements for EDFAs for terrestrial applications and for Submarine applications, there are major important differences making the two types of amplifiers definitely two different components.


Terrestrial(Land) systemSubmarine System


Read more

Temperature dependency of EDFA Gain for various channels

Here the results are after evaluating the effect of a thermal variation on the output tilt. In this particular set-up the amplifier is kept at room temperature (25 °C) and only the active fiber spool undergo a thermal cycle. Temperature of the EDFA is varied from 0 °C to 65 °C and the amplifier gain…

Read more

Simplifying what and why of Raman Amplifier.


It's always a wondering situation when we discuss Raman Amplifier;its benefits , requirement and application.I have tried to make it simpler to understand here.

Hope it will help the readers.



  • The Raman amplifier is typically much more costly and has less gain than an Erbi…

Read more

Animated map shows the undersea cables that power the internet



How Layer 0(zero) is so efficient with "Latency" -One of the key parameter for Operator.

Layer 0(zero) merely introduces any latency to the network.


  • It's mostly the electronics that imparts latency in the network.
  • The more we play with bit streams/signals ;more will be the latency.
  • Most of the latency optimization happens in layer 1-3.

Future Transport Network R…

Read more

Optical Fiber Link Design requirements

The optical link design essentially is putting the various optical components, which we discussed earlier, so that information can be transmitted satisfactorily. The satisfactoriness of the transmission can be defined in terms of some characteristic parameters.

 The user generally specifies the dis…

Read more

How and where do we get pre and post FEC BER

How and where do we get pre and post FEC BER

The first thing to note is that for each frame there are two sets of 20 parity bits. One set is associated with the end to end post FEC BER. The other is used to measure the span by span raw BER. The points at which these parity bits are terminated are…

Read more


The maximum number of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in a fiber chain is about four to  six.



The rule is based on the following rationales:

1. About 80 km exists between each in-line EDFA, because this is the approximate distance at which the signal needs to be ampli…

Read more

Why is it preferable to put attenuator/pad at the Receive end of Optical Module?


Few analogies proving the subject:-



attenuators in fiber optic data link


  • If the distance is to short and the attenuator is too close to the transmitter, the reflected light off the attenuator will be directed back towards the Tx laser. Which will also blow your we place it at Rx.


  • Also keeping…

Read more

Power Change during add/remove of channels on filters


The power change can be quantified as the ratio between the number of channels at the reference point after the channels are added or dropped and the number of channels at that reference point previously.We can consider composite power here and each channel at same optical power in dBm.

So when…

Read more

HD-FEC & SD-FEC differences

DefinitionDecoding based on hard-bits(the output is quantized only to two levels) is called the “HD(hard-decision) decoding”, where each bit is considered definitely one or zero. Decoding based on soft-bits(the output is quan…

Read more

Difference between OTDR and COTDR.

What is a OTDR ?

Optical Time Domain Reflectometer - also known as an OTDR, is a hardware device used for measurement of the elapsed time and intensity of light reflected on optical fiber.

How it works?

The reflectometer can compute the distance to problems on the fiber such as attenuation …

Read more

A walk-through with non linear impairments in optical fiber

Non-linear interactions between the signal and the silica fibre transmission medium begin to appear as optical signal powers are increased to achieve longer span lengths at high bit rates. Consequently, non-linear fibre behaviour has emerged as an important consideration both in high capacity system…

Read more

Understanding multipliers and divisors value in calculating OTN frame rates (255,239,238,237 etc) for OPUk,ODUk and OTUk

**Multiplicative factor is just a simple math :eg. for ODU1/OPU1=3824/3808={(239*16)/(238*16)}

Here value of multiplication factor will give the number of times for rise in the frame size after adding header/overhead.

Example:let consider y=(x+delta[x])/x; In terms of OTN frame here delta[x] is i…

Read more

How to know if errors are due to linear or non-linear issue in an optical link?


When the bit error occurs to the system, generally the OSNR at the transmit end is well and the fault is well hidden.
Decrease the optical power at the transmit end at that time. If the number of bit errors decreases at the transmit end, the problem is non-linear problem.
If the number of bit …

Read more

What is Optical Power Requirement and margin for a optics module's power?

Optical power tolerance: It refers to the tolerable limit of input optical power, which is the range from sensitivity to overload point.

Optical power requirement: If refers to the requirement on input optical power, realized by adjusting the system (such as adjustable attenuator, fix attenua…

Read more

What are main advantages and drawbacks of EDFAs?

The main advantages and drawbacks of EDFAs are as follows.


  • Commercially available in C band (1,530 to 1,565 nm) and L band (1,560 to 1,605) and up to  84-nm range at the laboratory stage.
  • Excellent coupling: The amplifier medium is an SM fiber;
  • Insensitivity to light polariz…

Read more


A Lower Order-ODU or LO-ODU is an ODUk, whose OPUk transports a inside mapped client.

An Higher Order-ODU or HO-ODU is an ODUk, whose OPUk transports an inside multiplexed ODUj.

LO-ODU and HO-ODU have the same structure but with different clients.
The LO-ODU is either mapped into the …

Read more

20 Blog Posts