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Blog posts : "collected from internet and some own contribution"

Single-mode fibre selection for Optical Communication System.....

 This is collected from article written by Mr.Joe Botha
Looking for a single-mode (SM) fibre to light-upyour multi-terabit per second system? Probably not, but let’s say you were - the smart money is on your well-intended fibre sales rep instinctively flogging you ITU-T G.652D  fibre. Commonlyr…

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Comparing FWM-CPM-and-SPM non linearity in Optical Fiber in DWDM networks.

dB:Make calculation more simpler

What are the definitions of dawn, dusk and twilight?

Dawn occurs at the time that the geometric center of the Sun is 18° below the horizon in the morning. Respectively, dusk occurs when the geometric center of the Sun is 18° below the horizon in the evening. Twilight refers to the periods between the dawn and sunrise and sunset and dusk, where sunrise…

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FEC-Forward Error Correction for Optics Professionals

What is Gridless Networking?

As the industry continues to push the boundaries of optical transmission speeds, the concept of “Gridless Networking” has emerged as a key requirement for tomorrow’s flexible and dynamic transport networks.  What is gridless networking?  Brian Lavallée, who heads up submarine networks industry marke…

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Evolution to flexible grid WDM

Evolution to flexible grid WDM

WDM networks operate by transmitting multiple wavelengths, or channels, over a fiber simultaneously. Each channel …

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Optical Switching Comprehensive Article

How Big Is A dB?

Introduction To The dB

Describing Power
Signal stages are cascaded, so powers are multiplied by gain or loss. This yields a lot of multiplications. This suggests the need for a logarithmic representation of power.
A logarithmic scale is used to
  • Condense wide range of numbers
  • Ease multiplication

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What,why and How of Pilot Tone in DWDM system?

What,why and How of Pilot Tone in DWDM system?

There have been many efforts to use pilot tones (i.e., small sinusoidal components added to WDM signals) for the monitoring of WDM signals directly in the optical layer. For example, it has been reported that pilot tones could be used to monitor various …

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Optical Amplifiers..........its Payback or Trade-off.

Optical Amplifiers..........The Payback!!

Optical amplifiers alleviate that problem by amplifying all the channels together completely in the optical domain; therefore, optical amplifiers can enhance the transmission distance. So, does that mean that optical amplifiers can increase the amplifying …

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OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectomer)..Some Know-how!

How to Test a Fiber Optic System with an OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectomer)

>> The Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)

OTDR is connected to one end of any fiber optic system up to 250km in length. Within a few seconds, we are able to measure the overall loss, or the loss of any part of a syst…

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Four Wave Mixing (FWM) in WDM System...

Four Wave Mixing (FWM) in WDM System..

>> Nonlinear Effects in High Power, High Bit Rate Fiber Optic Communication Systems

When optical communication systems are operated at moderate power (a few milliwatts) and at bit rates up to about 2.5 Gb/s, they can be assumed as linear systems. However, at high…

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Optical modulation for High Baud Rate networks...40G/100G Speed Networks......

Optical modulation for High Baud Rate networks.... 40G/100G  Speed Networks......

>> What is Higher-Order Modulation Method?

A range of newly developed fundamental communications technologies must be employed in order to reliably transmit signals of 40/43 Gbps and even 100 Gbps in the near future usi…

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Optical Transport Network (OTN):A comprehensive study

Optical Transport Network (OTN) ITU-T Recommendations on the OTN Transport Plane The following table lists all of the known ITU-T Recommendations specifically related to the OTN Transport Plane. Topic Title Publ.* …

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Understanding Synchronization Protection Basics in Transmission Network


Infonetics Survey for 100G Optical Systems Market Share

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) -Important Parameter for Optical Link Design

>> What is PMD versus Differential Group Delay (DGD)?

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) is the average Differential Group Delay (DGD) one expects to see when measuring an optical fiber.
DGD is the time separation or delay between the two principle polarization modes of the transmission link at the re…

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All about SDH:A pictorial perspective......

Dear Friends,

Sometime we require something that help us to understand SDH in quick mode.For this I have collected some snapshots that will help you crack your interviews as well as make you loaded with the know hows of the same..

1.SDH frame:-

 2.Mapping structure:-


4.Path Overheads:-


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20 Blog Posts